So far in this series in partnership with City & Guilds, marking National Apprenticeship Week, we have looked at the Construction; Business, IT & Customer Service; and Finance sectors. In this fourth part of our series, we will be looking at the area of Health and social care.
Overview of Health & Social Care
The first thing to note is that unlike the previous sectors we have looked at — Construction; Business, IT & Customer Service; and Finance –, which all saw some periods of sharp decline over the past ten years, Health and social care has experienced almost continual growth:
In terms of numbers employed in this sector in England and Wales, there were 2,668,026 back in 2003, rising to 3,284,439 in 2013 — an increase of 616,413 or 23.1%. According to our data, the trend is set to continue for the foreseeable future, although at a slower rate of increase. The average wage in the sector in 2013 was £21,836.
Industries and Occupations
Within the Health and social care “umbrella”, there are 12 specific sectors, as shown by the table below:
Table: Specific Sectors (4-Digit SIC Level) Health & Social Care in 2013
|Description||2013 Jobs||2013 Avg. Earnings Per Job|
|Source: EMSI Covered Employment - 2014.1|
|Other social work activities without accommodation n.e.c.||386,490||£19,781|
|Other human health activities||290,333||£25,979|
|Social work activities without accommodation for the elderly and disabled||250,817||£13,702|
|Residential care activities for the elderly and disabled||221,026||£15,389|
|Other residential care activities||218,375||£17,305|
|General medical practice activities||204,597||£17,425|
|Residential nursing care activities||178,116||£15,154|
|Child day-care activities||156,710||£12,287|
|Dental practice activities||83,411||£14,963|
|Residential care activities for learning disabilities, mental health and substance abuse||42,287||£19,176|
|Specialist medical practice activities||17,540||£16,137|
The table shows that the Health & social care sector is dominated by Hospital activities with 1,234,737 people employed in it — not a massive surprise given that most of this employment will be within the NHS, which is the largest employer in Europe. The second biggest sector is Other social work activities without accommodation n.e.c., which employs 386,490 people (this sector includes things like counselling, welfare and guidance activities, adoption activities, household budget counselling, marriage and family guidance and credit and debt counselling services). There are also big numbers in various care activities such as Social work activities without accommodation for the elderly and disabled (250,817), Residential care activities for the elderly and disabled (221,026), and Other residential care activities (218,375). The highest wages are found in the Hospital activities sector, with an average salary of £28,656, whilst the lowest wages are in Child day-care activities (£12,287).
In terms of actual occupations within the Health & social care sector, the table below shows the 20 highest employing occupations:
Table: Top 20 Highest Employing Occupations within Health & Social Care in 2013
|Occupation||Employed in Industry Group (2013)||% of the Total Jobs in Industry Group (2013)||Median Hourly Earnings||Education Level|
|Source: EMSI Covered Employment - 2014.1|
|Care workers and home carers||542,803||16.5%||£7.80||Level 2|
|Nursing auxiliaries and assistants||245,544||7.5%||£9.53||Level 3|
|Medical practitioners||159,911||4.9%||£30.01||Level 6|
|Cleaners and domestics||97,922||3.0%||£6.59||Level 1|
|Nursery nurses and assistants||77,320||2.4%||£7.00||Level 2|
|Welfare and housing associate professionals n.e.c.||73,548||2.2%||£11.32||Level 3|
|Senior care workers||68,273||2.1%||£7.89||Level 3|
|Medical secretaries||64,965||2.0%||£10.87||Level 3|
|Other administrative occupations n.e.c.||63,785||1.9%||£9.51||Level 2|
|Social workers||50,884||1.5%||£16.67||Level 6|
|Dental nurses||49,663||1.5%||£9.29||Level 4|
|Kitchen and catering assistants||36,290||1.1%||£6.28||Level 2|
|Records clerks and assistants||34,079||1.0%||£9.92||Level 2|
|Residential, day and domiciliary care managers and proprietors||33,773||1.0%||£14.00||Level 4|
|Social services managers and directors||32,269||1.0%||£18.44||Level 6|
|Youth and community workers||28,922||0.9%||£11.82||Level 6|
Given what we saw in the industry table above, which showed numerous care sectors with big employment numbers, we would have expected to see high employment in the Care workers and home carers classification. In fact it tops the table, with more than half-a-million people employed. As mentioned in a previou article in this series, it should be borne in mind that the total here — 542,803 — is the total employed within the Health & social care industry, and not the total numbers of Care workers and home carers in all industries across Britain, which was actually 648,806 in England & Wales in 2013. It might seem a little counter-intuitive that not all Care workers and home carers actually work in the Health & social care industry, but by looking at the Inverse Staffing Patterns to find out which industries Care workers and home carers work in, we actually find that some are employed outside the Health & social care sector in industries such as Temporary employment agency activities, and Public administration and defence; compulsory social security, which might well include carers employed by the Ministry of Defence for ex-military. All this is just to say that when looking at labour markets, we need to take account of both industry and occupation data in order to get a complete picture of what is going on.
It is also worth noting from the table that there is a pretty broad mix of educational levels in the occupations within Health & social care, ranging from Level 1 (Cleaners and domestics) all the way up to Level 6 (Nurses, Social workers, Physiotherapists, Midwives, Social services managers and directors, and Youth and community workers).
Regional Variations in Health & Social Care
Moving on to look at the Health & social care industry in terms of regional variations, the following graph shows the major areas of employment throughout Britain:
Generally speaking, there is a close correlation between the population spread of England and Wales, and the regional spread of the Health & social care industry. For example, according to our data 9.9% of the population of England and Wales live in the West Midlands, and this region employs 9.9% of all people who work in the Health & social care sector. There are two exceptions to this, although even in these cases the discrepancies are not huge. The East of England, which makes up 10.5% of the population of England and Wales, has a disproportionately lower percentage of its population employed in the Health and social care sector, with 9.4% of the total. The South West, by way of contrast, which is home to 9.4% of the population, has a disproportionately higher proportion of people employed in Health and social care, with 10.4% of the total. This is mainly due to the South West having a higher concentration of Residential care homes than the rest of the country.
The Future of Health & Social Care
Using our data to look at the future of the sector, we can firstly see which regions are likely to see the most growth over the next few years:
In terms of numbers, the South East is set to see the biggest gains in the Health and social care sector, with more than 12,000 jobs added between 2013 and 2018. However, in terms of proportionate growth, the biggest increase looks like being seen in the West Midlands, with 11,273 more people employed in the sector in 2018 than in 2013 — a rise of 3%.
As for growth by occupation category, the following table shows where the growth looks set to occur in the years to come:
Table: Top 10 Highest Growth Health & Social Care Occupations Over the Next Five Years
Occupation Employed in Industry Group (2013) Employed in Industry Group (2018) Change (2013 - 2018) % Change (2013 - 2018) Education Level
Source: EMSI Covered Employment - 2014.1
Care workers and home carers 542,803 566,037 23,234 4% Level 2
Medical practitioners 159,911 169,515 9,604 6% Level 6
Nurses 480,074 486,667 6,593 1% Level 6
Nursery nurses and assistants 77,320 83,066 5,746 7% Level 2
Nursing auxiliaries and assistants 245,544 250,807 5,263 2% Level 3
Dental nurses 49,663 53,968 4,305 9% Level 4
Senior care workers 68,273 70,982 2,709 4% Level 3
Welfare and housing associate professionals n.e.c. 73,548 75,135 1,587 2% Level 3
Health services and public health managers and directors 27,780 29,356 1,576 6% Level 6
Social services managers and directors 32,269 33,796 1,527 5% Level 6
The highest employing occupation category in 2013 — Care workers and home carers — is set to continue the huge growth that has occurred over the last decade. According to our data, the number of people employed in this sector back in 2003 in England and Wales was 468,449. Our data shows that by 2018, the numbers in this sector will have risen to 680,156 — a rise of 45.2% over 15 years. Much of this rise can be attributed to the ageing population, which we highlighted in our recent Demographics article. The demand for nurses and associated occupations is also set to see significant increase over the next few years.
What can we take away from the data shown above? The three most prominent features are as follows:
- Unlike all the other sectors we have seen so far, the recession did not affect the total numbers employed in the Health and social care sector, with numbers increasing fairly steeply and steadily throughout the last ten years.
- In terms of specific sectors, Health and social care is dominated by Hospital activities and also by various care sectors.
- Care workers and home carers — already the biggest occupation category within the sector — is likely to continue its rapid growth, with another 23,000 or so jobs being added by 2018.
EMSI and City & Guilds are working in partnership to deliver an innovative new service to FE Colleges. City & Guilds Advance provides colleges with a detailed labour market review, linked to their current curriculum and identify gaps in provision leading to a full quality review of key subject areas to address key Ofsted requirements. To find out more please visit the City & Guilds website.